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教育技术学专业英语

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A Grief Instruction about ICT  

2008-10-21 23:35:56|  分类: 作业区 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                                                                                                                              by 李沫茹组

ICT comes with the information age and brings us with a question—Why do we pay more attention to the ICT rather than IT on earth? What role does the ICT play in the educational camp? Based on the background of modern society and education, we argue about ICT from five parts: the definition of ICT, the importance and meaning of ICT, its’ application and the comparison between ICT and IT.

What’s ICT?

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a broad subject, which combines the technologies that have been developed since the usage of electronic computers and data communication became widespread. In industrialized countries, ICT has revolutionized the way in which people live and work.

ICT is an information handling tool for us to find, process, analyse, present, and disseminate ideas and on society are becoming indispensable skills in today’s world. Now ICT is fast becoming a “critical filter”: the possession of the capability to make optimal use of ICT in a variety of environments is leading to more attractive job prospects and better life chances.

To companies,ICT is an electronic based system of information transmission, reception, processing andretrieval, which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live.

In addition, through ICT, students extend and deepen their knowledge, investigation, and inquiry according to their needs and interes when access to information is available on multiple levels.

The importance of ICT

ICT skills are important for students and citizens in the modern society. There are three points, which are to our society, to education, and to person.

First, ICT has become an increasingly important feature of life in our society. As we all know, we live in an information age and are suffering amounts of information. Every day, we will deal with much undefined information. Society will suffer if some of their members have little or no facility with ICT especially since public and other services are increasingly becoming available on line.

Second, according to OECD (2001), knowledge of and familiarity with ICT is an important aspect of employability as the 21stcentury unfolds. Students can benefit from a school’s successfully embracing ICT. What’s more, ICT can increase the breadth and richness of learning, not least through the topicality and realism that the new resources can bring. It can thus nurture the development of higher-order thinking skills and problem-solving ability, such as analysis, synthesis, etc. Via the use of ICT, a teacher may really treat students as individual learners who plan their own learning according to individualized learning styles. In this setting, they can construct knowledge, instead of simply reproducing. So ICT can be a powerful support for constructivist learning.

Third, the information literate person is empowered for effective decision-making, freedom of choice, and full participation in a democratic society. People need more than just a knowledge base, and they also need techniques for exploring it, connecting it to other knowledge bases, and making practical use of it.

What can we do with ICT in educational field?

The use of information and communication technologies in the education process has been divided into two broad categories: ICTs for Education and ICTs in Education. ICTs for education connote the development of information and communications technology specifically for teaching or learning purposes, while the ICTs in Education involves the adoption of general components of information and communication technologies in the teaching learning process. Here are the methods of using the ICT in there two categories.

At first the Educational institutions should train teachers who are technology-competent and who effectively use and integrate technology into their teaching activities. Before they take some measures, they have to understand how instructors and pre-service teachers in a faculty of education perceive technology can help institutions of higher education to successfully integrate, in relation with the current ICT usage. Thus, they should make clear the following questions.

What is the current provision of technology utilized by both instructors and pre-service teachers? 

What are the anticipated technologies and activities that preservice teachers require?

What are the preservice teachers’ perceptions pertaining to computer and technology facilities provided to them?

What are the instructors’ perceptions pertaining to technology usage in teaching activities?

What are the obstacles that instructors faced during technology integration process?

After that,they need to make a long-term policy that can improve the quality of their teathers, the substance of their curriculum, and their assessment approach and try to restructure their education programs and classroom facilities, in order to minimize the teaching and learning technology gap between today and the future.This restructuring process requires effective integration of technologies into existing context in order to provide learners with knowledge of specific subject areas, to promote meaningful learning and to enhance professional productivity

To teachers,there appear to be three main approaches to ICT taken by them according to (UNESCO, 2004). These are:

Integrated approach: planning the use of ICT within the subject to enhance particular concepts and skills and improve students’ attainment. This involves a careful and considered review of the curriculum area, selecting the appropriate ICT resource which will contribute to the aims and objectives of the curriculum and scheme of work, and then integrating that use in relevant lessons.

Enhancement approach: planning the use of an ICT resource which will enhance the existing topic through some aspect of the lessons and tasks. For example, using an electronic whiteboard for presenting theory about a topic. In this approach, the teacher plans to complement the lesson with an innovative presentation method to promote class discussion and the visualisation of problems.

Complementary approach: using an ICT resource to empower the pupils’ learning, for example by enabling them to improve their class work by taking notes on the computer, or by sending homework by email to the teacher from home, or by word processing their homework. All three approaches can enhance attainment, but the effects may be different. In the integrated approach, students’ learning is enhanced because they are confronted with challenges to their existing knowledge and given deeper insights into the subject being studied. The enhancement approach could improve students’ learning through presenting knowledge in new ways, promoting debates among students, and encouraging them to formulate their own explanations. The complementary approach draws on the approach that suggests that learning can be enhanced by reducing the mundane and repetitive aspects of tasks such as writing essays and homework by hand, freeing the learner to focus on more challenging and subject-focused tasks (Kemmis et al., 1977 in UNESCO, 2004). These different types of use require the teacher to have an extensive knowledge of ICT and to be able to fit its use either into their existing pedagogy or to extend their pedagogical knowledge so they can accommodate ICT effectively in their teaching.

New technologies require new teacher roles, new pedagogies, and new approaches to teacher training.The successful integration of ICT into the classroom will depend on the ability of teachers to structure the learning environment in non-traditional ways,to merge new technology with new pedagogy, to develop socially active classrooms, encouraging cooperative interaction,collaborative learning,and group work. This requires a different set of classroom management skills to be developed. The key skills of the future will include the ability to develop innovative ways of using technology to enhance the learning environment, and to encourage technology literacy,knowledge deepening and knowledge creation. Teacher professional development will be a crucial component of this educational improvement.

However, teacher professional development has an impact only if it is focused on specific changes in teacher classroom behaviors and particularly if the professional development is on-going and aligned with other changes in the educational system.Consequently, the UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers plays out the implications that each of the three education improvement approaches have for changes in each of the components of the educational system: policy, curriculum and assessment, pedagogy, the use of technology, school organization and administration, and teacher professional development.

In this way ,ICT can be made good use in the field of education.

The camparison between IT and ICT

We know more about the ICT through the instruction above. However the ICT and IT are different concepts in educational camp and have discriminating functions. Now Let’s take a look at the different between ICT and IT.

ICT stands for ‘Information and Comunication Technology'. And IT stands for ‘Information Technology'. Obviously the two are very similar. They’re both belonging to moden technology.They are all sets of tools.

However,they have many diffrences. Firstly,we refer the two concepts in their application areas .IT is more widely used within industry, whereas ICT is applied to the academic and education side and used in places of learning, such as school, colleges and universities.    

Secondly, ICT not just a set of tools but also a set of skills.Hardware in IT refer to the basic box and peripherals such as scanners, printers, CD ROM. Software includes some packages like word processors , spreadsheets, databases, graphics.In ICT, hardware includes server machines, access networks, interconnecting medium and so on.Software includes network services, protocols, server programs, client programs etc.In short, ICT concentrates on the communication between source and receiver. Just as the following graph. Maybe we can say that ICT a tool to communicate,basing on IT.

We give the concept map below.

 

                                                  

                                                          Written by Li Moru(What’s ICT)

                                                          Liu Yi(The importance of ICT)

                                                          Huang Wensy(What can we do with ICT in educational camp)

                                                          Yang Xiaojing and Lai Lumei(The camparison between IT and ICT)

                                                          And sumed up by Gaoqian

 

Ps: Our concept map made in class is attached.

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